The X Window System, version 11 (often “X11”, or simply “X”) is the standard graphical environment under Unix and GNU/Linux; it is also available for other platforms, including Mac OS X and MS-Windows. X applications (“clients”) exchange data with an X server (another application). The X server receives and interprets instructions from the clients for displaying the clients’ windows, and it collects and transmits keyboard and mouse input events to the clients.
packages available with Cygwin (collectively, “Cygwin/X”) provide a X server (XWin), a large set of standard X clients, and a set of development tools that can be used to compile X clients that run under MS-Windows. Cygwin/X is slower then native Windows X servers like Xming.
Important: X clients cannot run unless they can connect to a running X server. The X server must be started first. When you use Cygwin/X, the X server runs on your PC, under MS-Windows. Once the X server is running, you can launch and interact with X clients on your PC or on any other networked computer (which can be running MS-Windows, GNU/Linux, Mac OS X, Unix, or any other OS that can run X client software). Among notable features of Cygwin/X:
X Server Display
- Support for multiple X displays and X screens
- Limited multiple monitor support
- Support for local and remote window managers, including GNOME, KDE, and CDE
- XDMCP (direct, indirect, and broadcast)
- Copy and Paste
- Copy and paste both text and graphics between X clients and Microsoft Windows applications
- Copy and paste text between X clients
- Text, area, and window selection modes
- Support for TrueType fonts
- International keyboard support
- 3-button emulation
|Important Note: Cygwin/X server is sensitive to the Numlock key setting. Java applications do not accept keystrokes when Numlock is on. Keyboard appears to be frozen…|
The Cygwin X server, XWin, can be launched in several ways. One of these is by running c:\cygwin\usr\X11R6\bin\startxwin.bat (you may wish to create a desktop shortcut to this batch file so that you can launch the X server by clicking on its icon). Another way to launch the X server is by running the command startx in a Cygwin window.
Starting Cygwin/X (adapted from Using Cygwin-X)
There are several methods of starting the Cygwin/X X Server with a startup script that optionally starts initial clients and loads keyboard modifier maps. three the most common methods are described below.
- Using Start menu. Navigate to Cygwin/X and click Xwin_server. Large lettr X should be visible in tray after X server starts.
- Using startxwin.batUse a MS-DOS batch file as the startup script. An example startxwin.bat is included in xorg-xinit, You can run /usr/bin/startxwin.bat by double-clicking it in Windows Explorer.
- Using startxwin.sh – Use an sh shell script as the startup script. An example startxwin.sh is included in xorg-xinit. Run /usr/bin/startxwin.sh in a Cygwin shell:
Username@CygwinHost ~ $ sh /usr/bin/startxwin.sh
- Using startxstartx – Use the standard X Window System startx script with its attendant ~/.xinitrc configuration file. First you need to create ~/.xinitrc from the template in /etc/X11/xinit/:
Username@CygwinHost ~ $ cp /etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc ~/.xinitrc
Now you may customize ~/.xinitrc and then start Cygwin/X with:
Username@CygwinHost ~ $ startx